The quality of that connection is very variable, with some communities only have one terminal accessible at times.
Overview[ edit ] Many of the challenges associated with Internet censorship are similar to those for offline censorship of more traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, books, music, radio, television, and film.
One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: Thus censors must work to prevent access to information even though they lack physical or legal control over the websites themselves.
This in turn requires the use of technical censorship methods that are unique to the Internet, such as site blocking and content filtering. A Time Magazine article quotes computer scientist John Gilmoreone of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundationas saying "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it.
Blocking and filtering can be based on relatively static blacklists or be determined more dynamically based on a real-time examination of the information being exchanged. Blacklists may be produced manually or automatically and are often not available to non-customers of the blocking software.
Blocking or filtering can be done at a centralized national level, at a decentralized sub-national level, or at an institutional level, for example in libraries, universities or Internet cafes.
In some cases the censoring authorities may surreptitiously block content to mislead the public into believing that censorship has not been applied. This is achieved by returning a fake "Not Found" error message when an attempt is made to access a blocked website.
Pseudonymity and data havens such as Freenet protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors. Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content.
Nevertheless, blocking remains an effective means of limiting access to sensitive information for most users when censors, such as those in Chinaare able to devote significant resources to building and maintaining a comprehensive censorship system.
The verb " rivercrab " colloquially refers to censorship of the Internet, particularly in Asia. Access to a certain IP address is denied. If the target Web site is hosted in a shared hosting serverall websites on the same server will be blocked.
A typical circumvention method is to find proxies that have access to the target websites, but proxies may be jammed or blocked, and some Web sites, such as Wikipedia when editingalso block proxies. Some large websites such as Google have allocated additional IP addresses to circumvent the block, but later the block was extended to cover the new addresses.
Due to challenges with geolocationgeo-blocking is normally implemented via IP address blocking. Domain name system DNS filtering and redirection: Blocked domain names are not resolved, or an incorrect IP address is returned via DNS hijacking or other means.
A typical circumvention method is to find an alternative DNS resolver that resolves domain names correctly, but domain name servers are subject to blockage as well, especially IP address blocking. Another workaround is to bypass DNS if the IP address is obtainable from other sources and is not itself blocked.
This affects the HTTP protocol. Terminate TCP packet transmissions when a certain number of controversial keywords are detected.
If a previous TCP connection is blocked by the filter, future connection attempts from both sides can also be blocked for some variable amount of time. Depending on the location of the block, other users or websites may also be blocked, if the communication is routed through the blocking location.
A circumvention method is to ignore the reset packet sent by the firewall. A technically simpler method of Internet censorship is to completely cut off all routers, either by software or by hardware turning off machines, pulling out cables.
A circumvention method could be to use a satellite ISP to access Internet. Major portals, including search enginesmay exclude web sites that they would ordinarily include. This renders a site invisible to people who do not know where to find it.
When a major portal does this, it has a similar effect as censorship. Sometimes this exclusion is done to satisfy a legal or other requirement, other times it is purely at the discretion of the portal. Denial-of-service attacks and attacks that deface opposition websites can produce the same result as other blocking techniques, preventing or limiting access to certain websites or other online services, although only for a limited period of time.
This technique might be used during the lead up to an election or some other sensitive period. It is more frequently used by non-state actors seeking to disrupt services. Content-control software Writing in Ronald Deibertprofessor of political science at the University of Toronto and co-founder and one of the principal investigators of the OpenNet Initiativeand, writing inEvgeny Morzov, a visiting scholar at Stanford University and an Op-Ed contributor to the New York Timesexplain that companies in the United States, Finland, France, Germany, Britain, Canada, and South Africa are in part responsible for the increasing sophistication of online content filtering worldwide.
While the off-the-shelf filtering software sold by Internet security companies are primarily marketed to businesses and individuals seeking to protect themselves and their employees and families, they are also used by governments to block what they consider sensitive content.
The companies sell products that are liable to be used by governments to violate human rights and freedom of information.Theoretical Framework Of Censorship Media Essay Introduction. This chapter consists of the theoretical, practical findings of the overall study, incorporates the conclusions of these findings and provides recommendation for art censorship environment of Turkey.
Self-Censorship in Conflicts: Israel and the Palestinian Exodus Article in Peace and Conflict Journal of Peace Psychology in press · January with Reads DOI: /pac (You can measure the failure of the self-esteem movement by all the thin skins it has produced and all the censorship it has encouraged.) Third, campus censorship is partly an unfortunate, unintended consequence of long delayed progress toward equality for racial minorities, women, and gay people.
Children's Books and Censorship Analysis. Get Free Access to this Children's Books and Censorship Study Guide outlines the major arguments about and causes of children’s book censorship.
Censorship by religion is a form of censorship where freedom of expression is controlled or limited using religious authority or on the basis of the teachings of the religion. This form of censorship has a long history and is practiced in many societies and by many religions.
A Brief History of Film Censorship. No film rated NC has been a major box office success. Storms in the Mountains: A Case Study of Censorship, Conflict, and Consciousness. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, Search. Stay informed about free speech and censorship.