An introduction and a brief history of bubonic plague

A brief History of The Plague Could it hit again? The Plague, long known as the Black Plague or the Bubonic Plague, and historically one of the most famous bacterial epidemics of the Middle Ages, Plague has represented over the centuries the proverbial and medical boogeyman of germs. Much of this sentiment has had to do with the fact that Plague left untreated in a victim not only occurs quickly but kills quickly as well. Old Middle Ages manuscripts commented about victims having lunch with friends during the day and being dead by nighttime due to the effects of the Plague bacteria.

An introduction and a brief history of bubonic plague


Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often near the site of the initial infection bite or scratch Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears Gangrene of the extremities such as toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose.

Additional symptoms include extreme fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, lenticulae black dots scattered throughout the bodydelirium, and coma. Cause Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut.

The foregut of this flea is blocked by a Y. Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic systemusually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis the rat flea.

In very rare circumstances, as in the septicemic plaguethe disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue or exposure to the cough of another human.

The flea is parasitic on house and field rats, and seeks out other prey when its rodent hosts die. The bacteria remain harmless to the flea, allowing the new host to spread the bacteria.

The bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas and this An introduction and a brief history of bubonic plague in the flea regurgitating ingested blood, which is now infected, into the bite site of a rodent or human host.

Once established, bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply. As the disease progresses, the lymph nodes can haemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic.

Bubonic plague can progress to lethal septicemic plague in some cases. The plague is also known to spread to the lungs and become the disease known as the pneumonic plague.

Diagnosis Laboratory testing is required in order to diagnose and confirm plague. Ideally, confirmation is through the identification of Y. Confirmation of infection can be done by examining serum taken during the early and late stages of infection.

An introduction and a brief history of bubonic plague

To quickly screen for the Y. Swollen lymph nodes buboes characteristic of bubonic plague, a fluid sample can be taken from them with a needle. Blood Lungs Treatment Several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague. These include aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicintetracyclines especially doxycyclineand the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin.

Other treatments include oxygen, intravenous fluids, and respiratory support. People who have had contact with anyone infected by pneumonic plague are given prophylactic antibiotics. Plague of Justinian The first recorded epidemic affected the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire and was named the Plague of Justinian after emperor Justinian Iwho was infected but survived through extensive treatment.

In the spring ofthe plague arrived in Constantinople, working its way from port city to port city and spreading around the Mediterranean Sealater migrating inland eastward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and Italy.

Procopius, in his work Secret History, declared that Justinian was a demon of an emperor who either created the plague himself or was being punished for his sinfulness. People who died of bubonic plague in a mass grave from — in MartiguesFrance In the Late Middle Ages — Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit inkilling a third of the human population.

Chinese records also showed a huge outbreak in Mongolia in the early s. When spring arrived, the Italian merchants fled on their ships, unknowingly carrying the Black Death. Carried by the fleas on rats, the plague initially spread to humans near the Black Sea and then outwards to the rest of Europe as a result of people fleeing from one area to another.

Third pandemic Main article: Third plague pandemic The plague resurfaced for a third time in the midth century. Like the two previous outbreaks, this one also originated in Eastern Asiamost likely in Yunnan Province of China, where there are several natural plague foci.

In the city of Cantonbeginning in Januarythe disease killed 80, people by June. Daily water-traffic with the nearby city of Hong Kong rapidly spread the plague there, killing over 2, within two months. This law was originally signed into existence by President Chester A.

The Chinese Exclusion Act was supposed to last for ten years but was renewed in with the Geary Act and subsequently made permanent in during the outbreak of plague in Chinatown, San Francisco.

The last major outbreak in the United States occurred in Los Angeles in[31] though the disease is still present in wild rodents, and can be passed to humans that come in contact with them. Ina plague outbreak in five Indian states caused an estimated infections including 52 deaths and triggered a large migration of Indians within India as they tried to avoid the plague.

From 1, to 2, cases are conservatively reported per year to the WHO. Unusually most of the cases were pneumonic rather than bubonic.

Black Death in medieval culture The scale of death and social upheaval associated with plague outbreaks has made the topic prominent in a number of historical and fictional accounts since the disease was first recognized.

The Black Death in particular is described and referenced in numerous contemporary sourcessome of which, including works by ChaucerBoccaccioand Petrarchare considered part of the Western canon.The Sanitation Problems of the Black Death The bubonic plague is a bacterial disease that is considered one of the most lethal in history.

An introduction and a brief history of bubonic plague

Recorded pandemics of the plague reach back to A.D. and minor epidemics can still be found around the world (Plague). The Bubonic plague, which was the disease’s most common form, the Septicemic plague, which spread through the bloodstream, and the Pneumonic plague, which was the most infectious type.

If left untreated, the Bubonic plague would kill about 50% of those infected. A brief History of The Plague Could it hit again?

Plague vaccines: current developments and future perspectives

The Plague, long known as the Black Plague or the Bubonic Plague, and historically one of the most famous bacterial epidemics of the Middle Ages, Plague has represented over the centuries the proverbial and medical boogeyman of germs.

A history of the bacterial disease of bubonic plague, and of the mortality, distress and panic fear that it caused in the British Isles from The Great Pestilence of to The Plague of London in , with a brief account of its transient reappearances between and /5(1). With such points in mind, I found The Black Death: The History and Legacy of the Middle Ages' Deadliest Plague is a terrific reminder of the widespread panic and superstitious ramblings during the 14th century when up to 90% of those contracting the bubonic plague initiativeblog.coms: Plague I.

Introduction & history: Last November a park ranger found a dead mountain lion. He took it home and performed a necropsy (autopsy) on the mountain lion. Bubonic & Septicemic plague spread through bites of infected fleas. - Rats carry the plague, and fleas live on rats.

The History of Plague – Part The Three Great Pandemics