In these plays Shakespeare presented the tragic fortunes of Richard II, which culminated in his deposition and murder:
When Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, seized the throne on August 22,leaving the Yorkist Richard III dead upon the field of battle, few Englishmen would have predicted that years of Tudor rule had begun.
His mother was the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, whose children by Catherine Swynford were born before he married her. As his mother was only 14 when he was born and soon married again, Henry was brought up by his uncle Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke.
When the Lancastrian cause crashed to disaster at the Battle of Tewkesbury MayJasper took the boy out of the country and sought refuge in the duchy of Brittany.
The house of York then appeared so firmly established that Henry seemed likely to remain in exile for the rest of his life.
His first chance came in when his aid was sought to rally Lancastrians in support of the rebellion of Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, but that revolt was defeated before Henry could land in England.
Claiming the throne by just title of inheritance and by the judgment of God in battle, he was crowned on October 30 and secured parliamentary recognition of his title early in November.
Having established his claim to be king in his own right, he married Elizabeth of York on January 18, Many influential Yorkists had been dispossessed and disappointed by the change of regime, and there had been so many reversals of fortune within living memory that the decision of Bosworth did not appear necessarily final.
Hence, the king was plagued with conspiracies until nearly the end of his reign. Henry, recognizing that Simnel had been a mere dupe, employed him in the royal kitchens.
Then in appeared a still more serious menace: It was not untilwhen he imprisoned Suffolk in the Tower of Londonthat Henry could at last feel safe. Foreign policy In the early years of his reign, in a vain attempt to prevent the incorporation of the duchy of Brittany into FranceHenry found himself drawn along with Spain and the Holy Roman emperor into a war against France.
But he realized that war was a hazardous activity for one whose crown was both impoverished and insecure, and in he made peace with France on terms that brought him recognition of his dynasty and a handsome pension.
Thereafter, French preoccupation with adventures in Italy made peaceful relations possible, but the support that Maximilian and James IV gave to Warbeck led to sharp quarrels with the Netherlands and Scotland.
The economic importance of England for the Netherlands enabled Henry to induce Maximilian and the Netherlands to abandon the pretender in and to conclude a treaty of peace and freer trade the Intercursus Magnus. Spain had recently sprung into the first rank of European powers, so a marriage alliance with Spain enhanced the prestige of the Tudor dynasty, and the fact that in the Spanish monarchs allowed the marriage to take place is a tribute to the growing strength of the Tudor regime in the eyes of the European powers.
Indeed, in these last years of his reign, Henry had gained such confidence in his position that he indulged in some wild schemes of matrimonial diplomacy. But the caution of a lifetime kept him from involvement in war, and his foreign policy as a whole must not be judged by such late aberrations.
He had used his diplomacy not only to safeguard the dynasty but to enrich his country, using every opportunity to promote English trade by making commercial treaties. He made his country so prosperous and powerful that he was able to betroth his daughter Mary to the archduke Charles afterward Emperor Charles Vthe greatest match of the age.
Government and administration In home affairs, Henry achieved striking results largely by traditional methods.
Like Edward IV, Henry saw that the crown must be able to display both splendour and power when occasion required. This necessitated wealth, which would also free the king from embarrassing dependence on Parliament and creditors.
Solvency could be sought by economy in expenditure, such as avoidance of war and promotion of efficiency in administration, and by increasing the revenue. To increase his income from customs dues, Henry tried to encourage exports, protect home industries, help English shipping by the time-honoured method of a navigation act to ensure that English goods were carried in English ships, and find new markets by assisting John Cabot and his sons in their voyages of discovery.
More fruitful was the vigorous assertion of royal fiscal rights, such as legal fees, fines and amercements, and feudal dues. This was largely achieved by continuing Yorkist methods in ordering most of the royal revenue to be paid into the chamber of the household, administered by able and energetic servants and supervised by the king himself, instead of into the Exchequer, hidebound by tradition.The regicide of Edward V The infamous Richard III, born on the 2nd of October , was a man recognised, not for the Battle of Bosworth Field, nor for being the King of England from the years of to , but for the alleged slaughter of his two nephews, Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, in London Tower, However, should this.
Henry VII: Henry VII, king of England (–), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty. His son was Henry VIII. The usurpation of Richard III (), however, split the Yorkist party and gave Henry his opportunity.
Richard III was based on a true life king who ruled between Upon the death of his brother, Edward IV, he became guardian to his two nephews, Edward . He died in England in Early Life. Rise and Fall of King Richard III. When King Edward IV died in , his oldest son took power as Edward V—the new king was only 12 years old at the.
The history of this period dating from the reign of Richard II to the defeat of Richard III at Bosworth Field in was dramatized in two tetralogies. The fir Critical Essay; Date, Style and Theme in Richard III; Study Help; The history of this period dating from the reign of Richard II to the defeat of Richard III at Bosworth Field.
On the 22nd of August Richard III, the last Plantagenet King, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Bosworth against Henry Tudor, who would found a dynasty which would feature the first Queen to rule in her own right and would last until