How to write a good results and discussion section

Example B Results On observation of each strain of E.

How to write a good results and discussion section

Data is expressed as number within the sample who possess the characteristic. Probability determined using a Mann- Whitney U test.

How to Write Guide: Sections of the Paper

Why is Table 1 in most studies? Shows that demographic and prognostic variables were evenly balanced in the process of random allocation of subjects to experimental and control groups. Components of Results section Results should answer main hypothesis or research question s Order of presenting results is arbitrary May be done in Table 1 in less-complicated studies; or be set apart to emphasize its importance.

Results that are "sidelights" should not receive equal weight When presenting the results for the main hypotheses, consider: Clear, concise, simple Is enough detail presented to allow the reader to determine whether the effect of the experimental treatment vs.

Were adverse effects reported?

This article is a part of the guide:

Do not state any differences were present between groups unless a significant P value is attached. You select those descriptive and inferential statistics you wish to use, and place them in the order that seems reasonable to you.

Tables and Graphs Presentation Tables and graphs must stand alone Can a member of your department unfamiliar with the study pick up your graph and explain its meaning to you? Text should highlight the importance or meaning of the figures and tables, not repeat the data contained within them.

Tables and graphs both carry a necessary part of the message- use both Do the numbers add up? Are baseline values for the groups similar? Are tables and graphs clearly labeled and appropriately scaled?

Tables and Graphs

Are the results of statistical analysis presented? Can one determine what statistical test produced the result? Choosing graph types To compare proportions and relative amounts How big? To show correlations how well does one thing predict another? If your results agree with previous work, fine.

If they do not, explain why not, or you may leave it unresolved "We cannot account for the difference seen in Were there any problems with carrying out the method as originally planned?

Not enough men in the study?

how to write a good results and discussion section

Unanticipated amounts of side effects or pain? Failure to look at a crucial time interval? Any unsettled points in results? Look forward Implications for patient care, or for theory Suggestions for future research "If I had to do it over I would Conclusion Beware inappropriate conclusions beyond the range of the data, beyond the design of the study Abstract Contains all sections of paper Introduction with clinical importance and a key reference or two Methods in pertinent detail Results of testing the main hypothesis and most significant other results only Discussion a sentence or two on main implications or conclusion Structured abstracts See current abstracts in Anesth Analg or Anesthesiology?Examples of results sections.

It includes material which does not belong to the results section such as interpretation and discussion; it focuses on the Figures representing the results, rather than the results themselves and it does not introduce and refer to the Figures correctly.

The role of writing checklists in the teaching. Feb 12,  · Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician. The aim of the present review is to outline the main aspects of writing the discussion section of a manuscript. Things to consider as you write your Results section: A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.

Do not introduce new results in the Discussion. The first thing is to work out whether you’re writing a ‘Results’ section, or a ‘Results and Discussion’ section.

Writing a Scientific Paper - Results, Discussion and Conclusion Sections

Many universities require a separate results chapter in your dissertation or thesis (i.e. the data and statistical analysis), followed by a standalone discussion chapter about how your findings relate to existing research.

Self-Criticism at the Heart of Writing a Discussion Section For this purpose, you should criticize the experiment, and be honest about whether your design was good enough. If not, suggest any modifications and improvements that could be made to the design.

Results. The results section is the part of the scientific paper around which everything else is built. The introduction describes why the results needed to be obtained, the methods how they were obtained and the discussion explains the results.

Writing a Discussion Section - Interprete the Results