With the extraordinary growth of the academic discipline of history in the 19th century, the history of the Middle Ages was absorbed into academic curricula of history in Europe and the United States and established in university survey courses and research seminars. Journals of… History of historiography All human cultures tell stories about the past.
It is as long as the span of your outstretched arms and wide enough to cover you from neck to knee, or from breast to toe. Kangas are usually bought and worn as a pair - called a "doti".
Kangas are the perfect gift. Husbands give kangas to wives. Men can sleep in kangas, and often wear them around the house; women wear them everywhere; babies are virtually born into them, and are usually carried in a soft sources of writing african history of kanga cloth.
Kangas are extremely popular throughout East Africa not only for clothing but for their multiple uses; no-one can ever have too many! History of Kanga Kangas originated on the coast of East Africa in the mid 19th century.
As the story goes, some stylish ladies in Zanzibar got the idea of buying printed kerchiefs in lengths of six, from the bolt of cotton cloth from which kerchiefs were usually cut off and sold singly.
They then cut the six into two lengths of three, and sewed these together along one side to make 3-by-2 sheet; or bought different kinds of kerchiefs and sewed them back together to form very individualistic designs. The new design was called "leso" after the kerchief squares that had originally been brought to Africa by Portuguese traders.
The leso quickly became popular than the other kind of patterned cloth available. Before long, enterprising coastal shopkeepers sent away for special designs, printed like the six-together leso pieces, but as a single unit of cloth.
These early designs probably had a border and a pattern of white spots on a dark background. The buyers or more likely, their menfolk! Kanga designs have evolved over the years, from simple spots and borders to a huge variety of elaborate patterns of every conceivable motif and color.
For a century, kangas were mostly designed and printed in India, the Far East and Europe. Even today, you will see kangas that were printed in China or Japan. But since the 's, more and more kangas have been designed and printed in Tanzania, Kenya, and other countries in Africa.
Early this century, Swahili sayings were added to kangas. Supposedly this fashion was started by a locally famous trader in Mombasa, Kaderdina Hajee Essak, also known as "Abdulla". His many kanga designs, formerly distinguished by the mark "K. At first, the sayings, aphorisms or slogans were printed in Arabic script, later in Roman letters.
Many of them have the added charm or frustration!
If you find a motto that you can't figure out, ask several different Swahili speakers. You will get an equal number of different explanations! Some typical kanga sayings are listed on the following page, for your edification and enjoyment.
New kanga designs keep appearing in great variety: There are noticeable regional differences. For example, most of the kangas with mottos are made in Kenya, while those commemorating social or political events are more common in Tanzania.
The Kanga is still evolving. Like the T-shirt, but incomparably more elegant and useful, it is a valuable medium for personal political, social and religious expression. As an art form as well as a beautiful, convenient garment, the kanga has become an integral part of East African culture.
As the saying goes, "The kanga struts in style A note on the History of Kanga Please note that there are various versions of the origins of the kanga cloth. The version provided above by Hanby and Bygott is just one version. Anthony John Troughear, an Australian journalist who lived and worked in Kenya, has another version.
Troughear thinks that the claim that kangas originated in Zanzibar is not correct. Zanzibar just happed to be a place where big Indian cloth merchants were. The Anatomy of Kanga Kanga is not just like any other rectangular piece of cloth, no matter how colourful it may be.
It is an artifact of the Swahili culture and as such it should be designed with extreme care to appeal to its users.
A poorly designed kanga, or one that fails to match the season doesn't deserve the name and the best it can be used for could be as a kitchen apron or a baby diaper.The recent uproar in South Africa over the claims by ANC president Jacob Zuma that the Land Act dispossessed blacks is a blatant lie, and forms part of four core lies about South African history, a New Observer correspondent Yochanan has written..
Submitted in the comment section of this newspaper, Yochanan’s remarks are so pertinent that they deserve greater publicity.
Journals. Many journals on African history exist. The most authoritative is the Journal of African History, which publishes on all areas of African history, as does International Journal of African Historical Studies. History in Africa is focused specifically on historical methods, with emphasis on the use of nonwritten sources. African Studies Review publishes on all areas of African studies. Sources of african history A source of history can be divided into two big groups, remnants and storytelling which usually are called primary and secondary sources. The primary sources, remnants and written documents are counted as more reliable than the oral history. Unit 7 Essay: Using Written Sources to Study African History Introduction Historians who study the continent of Africa often run into problems acquiring and interpreting primary sources when they study Ancient and Medieval Africa.
The Library of Congress offers classroom materials and professional development to help teachers effectively use primary sources from the Library's vast digital collections in their teaching. As a student writing a paper about some aspect of history, you also will need to go to sources.
You cannot just write something from your own "feelings" or "experience." You must instead use sources that record and describe past events and people. The Dramatic Genius of Charles Fuller. An African Playwright by Molefi Kete Asante.
Charles Fuller is a pre-eminent American dramatist. The Dramatic Genius of Charles Fuller is an accessible and appropriate introduction to the mind of Fuller for those who know his work and those who do not. Source: The Journal of African History, Vol.
43, No. 1 (), pp. This is true of all history-writing inasmuch as the historian is bound to see things from the standpoint of present time, but, views change with particular speed in regard to recent history.
WRITING HISTORIES OF CONTEMPORARY AFRICA. This ". In religious history, the primary sources are religious texts and descriptions of religious ceremonies and rituals. A study of cultural history could include fictional sources such as novels or plays. In a broader sense primary sources also include artifacts like photographs, newsreels, coins, paintings or buildings created at the time.