Have a look at the mark scheme which is also in this section.
These are mostly toy examples. But they serve to highlight the deficiencies which more complex examples also share.
God is a being which has every perfection. This is true as a matter of definition. Existence is a perfection. I conceive of a being than which no greater can be conceived. If a being than which no greater can be conceived does not exist, then I can conceive of a being greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived—namely, a being than which no greater can be conceived that exists.
I cannot conceive of a being greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived. Hence, a being than which no greater can be conceived exists.
It is possible that that God exists. God is not a contingent being, i. Hence, it is necessary that God exists.
See MalcolmHartshorneand Plantinga for closely related arguments. Hence, the existent perfect being is existent.
Hence, God is existent, i. The last step is justified by the observation that, as a matter of definition, if there is exactly one existent perfect being, then that being is God.
See Rescher for a live version of this argument. Whenever a bunch of things exist, their mereological sum also exists. Therefore the sum of all things exists. Therefore God—the sum of all things—exists.
Say that a God-property is a property that is possessed by God in all and only those worlds in which God exists. Not all properties are God properties. Any property entailed by a collection of God-properties is itself a God-property. The God-properties include necessary existence, necessary omnipotence, necessary omniscience, and necessary perfect goodness.
Hence, there is a necessarily existent, necessarily omnipotent, necessarily omniscient, and necessarily perfectly good being namely, God. Of course, this taxonomy is not exclusive:Religious Epistemology.
Belief in God, or some form of transcendent Real, has been assumed in virtually every culture throughout human history. The issue of the reasonableness or rationality of belief in God or particular beliefs about God typically arises when a religion is confronted with religious competitors or the rise of atheism or agnosticism..
In the West, belief in God was assumed in. Modern pop culture declares that atheism is a "scientific" worldview. But most of the key contributors to modern science were theists and often Christian. God and Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science [Neil A.
Manson] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Recent discoveries in physics, cosmology, and biochemistry have captured the public imagination and made the Design Argument - the theory that God created the world according to a specific plan - the object of renewed scientific and philosophical interest.
Social and Political Recognition. Acts of recognition infuse many aspects of our lives such as receiving a round of applause from a rapt audience, being spotted in a crowded street by a long-forgotten friend, having an application for a job rejected because of your criminal record, enjoying some words of praise by a respected philosophy professor, getting pulled over by the police because you.
Also see SEP, EB, and PP.. Teresa of Ávila (Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada) (). Spanish initiativeblog.com's The Way of Perfection () and The Interior Castle sharply distinguished intellectual from volitional portions of human nature and recommended the total surrender of the soul to god through both prayerful meditation and ecstatic union with the divine.
1) The very notion of an all-perfect being means God has to exist. This is the classic ontological, or a priori, initiativeblog.com was first articulated in by St. Anselm, who argued that because we.